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Awasthi 2015

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Awasthi 2015
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  Accepted Manuscript Co-composting of organic fraction of municipal solid waste mixed with differentbulking waste: Characterization of physicochemical parameters and microbialenzymatic dynamicMukesh Kumar Awasthi, Akhilesh Kumar Pandey, Pushpendra Singh Bundela,Jamaluddin KhanPII:S0960-8524(15)00124-8DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2015.01.104Reference:BITE 14536To appear in:  Bioresource Technology Received Date:21 November 2014Revised Date:23 January 2015Accepted Date:24 January 2015Please cite this article as: Awasthi, M.K., Pandey, A.K., Bundela, P.S., Khan, J., Co-composting of organic fractionof municipal solid waste mixed with different bulking waste: Characterization of physicochemical parameters andmicrobial enzymatic dynamic,  Bioresource Technology  (2015), doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2015.01.104This is a PDF file of an unedited manuscript that has been accepted for publication. As a service to our customerswe are providing this early version of the manuscript. The manuscript will undergo copyediting, typesetting, andreview of the resulting proof before it is published in its final form. Please note that during the production processerrors may be discovered which could affect the content, and all legal disclaimers that apply to the journal pertain.    Co-composting of organic fraction of municipal solid waste mixed with different bulking waste: Characterization of physicochemical parameters and microbial enzymatic dynamic Mukesh Kumar Awasthi a-c,* , Akhilesh Kumar Pandey d , Pushpendra Singh Bundela b , Jamaluddin Khan c *Corresponding author. Dr. Mukesh Kumar Awasthi Department of Biotechnology Amicable Knowledge Solution University Satna, India   Tel.: +917672-4037776, 09407141306, Fax: +917672-4037776, E-mail address: mukesh_awasthi45@yahoo.com    Co-composting of organic fraction of municipal solid waste mixed with different bulking waste: Characterization of physicochemical parameters and microbial enzymatic dynamic Mukesh Kumar Awasthi a-c,* , Akhilesh Kumar Pandey d , Pushpendra Singh Bundela b , Jamaluddin Khan c a Department of Biotechnology, Amicable Knowledge Solution University, Satna, India b Regional Office, Madhya Pradesh Pollution Control Board, Jabalpur, India c Mycological Research Laboratory, Department of Biological Sciences, Rani Durgavati University, Jabalpur, India d Madhya Pradesh Private Universities Regulatory Commission, Bhopal, India Abstract The effect of various bulking waste such as wood shaving, agricultural and yard trimming waste combine with Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste (OFMSW) composting was investigated through assessing their influence on microbial enzymatic activities and quality of finished compost. All three piles of OFMSW with different bulking waste were inoculated with microbial consortium. The results revealed that OFMSW combine with wood shaving and microbial consortium ( Phanerochaete chrysosporium , Trichoderma viride  and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ) were helpful tool to facilitate the enzymatic activity and shortened composting period within four weeks. Major fluctuations of enzymatic activity was observed in pile 1 and 3 during the first 3 weeks, while in pile 2 relatively very low through composting. But phosphatase activity was relatively higher in all piles until the end of the process. Maturity parameters of compost quality also favored the pile 1 as the best formulation for OFMSW composting. Keywords: Compost,   wood shaving, yard trimming, agricultural waste, microbial consortium.    1.   Introduction Most of human activities worldwide produce over million tonnes of municipal solid waste (MSW) each year now which create serious health hazards problems from both environmental and economic points of view (Castaldi et al., 2008; Adam et al., 2009). From long time ago landfill is one of the way for MSW management process in all over the world, which takes up broad land area and generate huge quantity of numerous auxiliary pollutants including leachate, greenhouse gases and odorous compounds (Zeng et al., 2010). Owing to rapid increasing population, rising MSW landfill costs and expanded environmental attention, the Indian Environmental Ministry has begun to consider alternative solid waste disposal methods (Gabhane et al., 2012; Awasthi et al., 2014). Many alternatives encouraged as successful strategy for the proper disposal of OFMSW have been proposed so far. But the use of aerobic windrow composting is one of the most attractive method due to its insignificant environmental impact, easy operational procedures and low cost technology (Liu et al., 2011). Because MSW contains more than 50% moisture and 60% of heterogeneous organic matter content; therefore, composting mixed with bulking agent is a possible alternative ecofriendly method, after elimination of metal, plastic and glass (Castaldi et al., 2008; Echeverria et al., 2012). But the compactness and high moisture content of raw materials means interrupt the efficacy of composting process, due to OFMSW cannot be properly composted alone and they need to be mixed with dry bulking agents must be added to provide the structural support to absorbing the moisture, improving the aeration and the end product quality (Eftoda and Mc-Cartney, 2004; Vargas-Gracia et al., 2010). Despite the fact that bulking agents represent a large proportion of the composting mixture, relatively little remains known about the influence of their microbial and biochemical characteristics although previous study (Yanez et al., 2009; Huet et al., 2012) have also demonstrated the effectiveness of adding supplementary waste materials (wheat straw,
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